The regulatory domains of cPKC isoforms (cPKCα: cPKC-alpha; cPKCβI: cPKC-beta I, cPKCβII: cPKC-beta II; and cPKCγ: cPKC-gamma) contain a C1 domain consisting of tandem ~50 amino acid long sequences termed C1A and C1B. The C1A and C1B subdomains each have six cysteines and two histidines that coordinate two Zn 2+ ions. The cPKCβII enzyme is an alternatively spliced version of cPKCβI. The C1A/C1B motifs function as a DAG-/PMA-binding motif (PMA: phorbol myristic acid). The regulatory domains of the cPKC isoforms also contain a C2 domain that binds anionic phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner. All the cPKC isoforms require DAG, Ca 2+ , and phospholipids for activation.
STEROIDS is an international research journal devoted to studies on all chemical and biological aspects of steroidal moieties. The journal focuses on both experimental and theoretical studies on the biology, chemistry, biosynthesis, metabolism, molecular biology, physiology and pharmacology of steroids and other molecules that target or regulate steroid receptors. Manuscripts presenting clinical research related to steroids, steroid drug development, comparative endocrinology of steroid hormones, investigations on the mechanism of steroid action and steroid chemistry are all appropriate for submission for peer review. STEROIDS publishes both original research and timely reviews. For details concerning the preparation of manuscripts see Instructions to Authors, which is published in each issue of the journal.
Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the CYP17A1 missing in zona glomerulosa and thus produce the major glucocorticoid, cortisol. Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells also contain CYP17A1, whose 17,20-lyase activity is responsible for producing the androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Thus, fasciculata and reticularis cells can make corticosteroids and the adrenal androgens, but not aldosterone.