In East Asia , in particular in Japan , traditional candle fuel was produced from Toxicodendron vernicifluum (synonym: Rhus verniciflua ) and Toxicodendron succedaneum (synonym: Rhus succedanea ), among other sumac plants in the genus Toxicodendron , rather than beeswax or animal fats. The sumac wax was a byproduct of traditional Japanese lacquer manufacture. The conical rousoku candles produced from sumac wax burn with smokeless flame and were favored in many respects over candles made from lard or beeswax during the Tokugawa shogunate . Japan wax is not a true wax but a solid fat that contains 10-15% palmitin , stearin , and olein with about 1% japanic acid (1,21-heneicosanedioic acid). It is still used in many tropical and subtropical countries in the production of wax match sticks.
These four characteristics are sufficient to identify poison ivy in most situations: (a) clusters of three leaflets, (b) alternate leaf arrangement, (c) lack of thorns, and (d) each group of three leaflets grows on its own stem, which connects to the main vine. The appearance of poison ivy can vary greatly between environments, and even within a large area. Identification by experienced people is often made difficult by leaf damage, the plant's leafless condition during winter, and unusual growth forms due to environmental or genetic factors. Various mnemonic rhymes describe the characteristic appearance of poison ivy: 
We live near acres of poison ivy with 4 young boys. We learned the hard way what works and what does not. Recognized fast, rubbing alcohol, hand sanitizer or soap is OK. But the real problem is later recognition. We have had reasonable long term and repeated success with spermicidal jelly (yes- nonoxynol 9 is a very good solvent), mineral spirits, acetone, and starting ether. For pure convenience ND SAFETY we have a large CONTAINER of mineral spirits in the garage at all times, and the kids are now old enough to rub themselves down on suspicion. When in doubt, wash it out.