Tattoo inks are mostly unregulated, and blood-borne diseases have reportedly been spread by tainted ink. In 2012, the FDA linked a multi-state bacterial outbreak to contaminated tattoo inks. An investigation detailed in the New England Journal of Medicine found the contamination “could have occurred at various points in the ink-production process”—meaning that tattoo parlors probably weren’t to blame. “Tattoo inks are considered to be cosmetics,” the report’s authors write. As a result, inks are allowed into the marketplace without much oversight, and the FDA and other public safety organizations only step in when something bad happens.
Lipases are a class of enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides. Microbial lipases are currently receiving much attention with the rapid development of enzyme technology. Lipases constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. This review describes various industrial applications of microbial lipases in the detergent, food, flavour industry, biocatalytic resolution of pharmaceuticals, esters and amino acid derivatives, making of fine chemicals, agrochemicals, use as biosensor, bioremediation and cosmetics and perfumery.
Recent studies in 2003 discovered that the immune system supports bio-film development in the large intestine. This was supported mainly with the fact that the two most abundantly produced molecules by the immune system also support bio-film production and are associated with the bio-films developed in the gut. This is especially important because the appendix holds a mass amount of these bacterial bio-films.  This discovery helps to distinguish the possible function of the appendix and the idea that the appendix can help reinoculate the gut with good gut flora.