Efectos inmunosupresores de los corticosteroides

IgA nephropathy is a common kidney disease that often leads to decreased kidney function and may result ultimately in kidney failure for one-third of affected people. The cause of IgA nephropathy is not known, although most people with the disease have abnormalities in their immune system. We identified 32 studies enrolling 1781 patients that met our inclusion criteria. This review found that if people with IgA nephropathy receive immunosuppressive drugs, particularly steroids, they may be less likely to develop kidney failure needing dialysis or transplantation. Few studies were available and the harms of therapy are currently not well understood. Larger placebo-controlled studies are now needed to be certain about the benefits and hazards of steroids on outcomes in IgA nephropathy and to identify which specific patients might benefit most from the treatment.

Spanish Abstract: Las nanopartículas (NP) son estructuras con tamaño en la escala nanométrica (1 x 10-9 m). Por sus características, en los últimos años ha crecido su potencial para usarlas en los campos biotecnológico y biomédico en una amplia gama de aplicaciones, tales como el diagnóstico, la terapia y la medicina regenerativa. El sistema inmunológico es el responsable de la defensa del cuerpo ante organismos patógenos y otros agentes extraños, como las NP, que pueden ser reconocidas por dicho sistema, interactuar con él y modular su función induciendo efectos inmunosupresores o inmunoestimuladores. Las primeras se podrían utilizar como agentes terapéuticos antinflamatorios o para tratar las enfermedades autoinmunes, y las que activan el sistema inmune, como adyuvantes en vacunación o potenciadores de la respuesta inmune en cáncer y otras enfermedades humanas. Sin embargo, su uso en nanomedicina debe estar sujeto a ensayos previos que determinen su efecto en la respuesta inmune antes de aplicarlas a los sistemas biológicos. Por esta razón es importante conocer su composición, tamaño y características superficiales, entre otras propiedades fisicoquímicas, directamente implicadas en los efectos sobre el sistema inmune. Se presenta una visión general de la relación entre las propiedades fisicoquímicas de las NP candidatas para ser usadas en los campos biomédico y biotecnológico y su actividad inmunomoduladora.

English Abstract: Nanoparticles (NP) are structures with a size on the nanometer scale (1 x 10-9 m). Due to their characteristics, their potential use in the fields of biotechnology and biomedicine has grown in recent years with a wide range of applications, such as diagnosis, therapy and regenerative medicine. The immune system is responsible for defending the body against pathogenic organisms and other foreign agents, such as NP, which can be recognized by such system, interact with it and modulate its function inducing immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive effects. The latter could be used as anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents or to treat autoimmune diseases, and those that activate the immune system, as adjuvants in vaccination or enhancers of the immune response in cancer and other human diseases. However, their use in nanomedicine should be submitted to preliminary tests to determine their effects on the immune response before being applied to biological systems. For this reason it is important to know their composition, size and surface characteristics, as well as other physicochemical properties, directly involved in the effects on the immune system. We present an overview about the relationship between the physicochemical characteristics of NP candidates to be used in the biomedical and biotechnological fields and their immunomodulatory activity.

Efectos inmunosupresores de los corticosteroides

efectos inmunosupresores de los corticosteroides

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